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EGYPT: officially named as Arab Republic of Egypt,Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometres ,It borders on the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Israel and the Red Sea in the east,Sudan in the south, and Libya in the west. Egypt's capital and largest city is CAIRO. In addition to the capital,there are major cities include Alexandria, Port said, Suez, Tanta, Luxor and ASWAN .



Egypt is located in Africa; the sinai peninsula is the only portion situated in Asia and is separated from the rest of the country by the suez canal.
Egypt North of Cairo is often called LOWER EGYPT and South of Cairo called UPPER EGYPT.



The Names Of Egypt

Egypt was famous by many Ancient names here is some of the famous names and its meaning...

Egypt was called by the ancient egyptians kemet meaning "black land," derived from the fertile black soils deposited by the Nile floods, distinct from the 'red land' (deshret) of the desert. This name became keme in a later stage of coptic.

MISR, is the arabic and official name for modern Egypt, is of semtic (from Late Latin Sēm and a descriptive term for pepoles of the middle east and their descendants,including arab and jews).
Anyway the origin directly cognate with the hebrew (Mizráyim), meaning "the two straits",and possibly means "a country" or "a state".

"Egypt" came via the Latin word AEGYPTUS derived from the ancient Greek word Αίγυπτος (Aiguptos). This word may in turn be derived from the ancient egyptian phrase (wt-k3-pt) ("Hwt ka Ptah") meaning "home of the Ka (part of the soul)) of Ptah," the name of a temple of the god ptah at memphis.
Some opinions said the the name of AEGYPTUS means the borders city.



The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations.
A unified kingdom was founded circa 3100 BC by King NARMAR, when he unified upper and lower egypt after they were two separeted kingdoms. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty, known as the Thirtieth Dynasty, fell to the Persians in 343 BC who dug the predecessor of the Suez canal and connected the Red sea to the Mediterranean. Later, Egypt fell to the Greeks, Romans,Byzantines,and Persians again.



It was the Muslim arabs who introduced ISLAM and the arabic language in the seventh century to the Egyptians, who gradually adopted both. Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern even after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.
Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub; however, the country also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, the United Kingdom seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914.

Almost fully independent from the UK since 1922, the Egyptian Parliament drafted and implemented a new constitution in 1923 under the leadership of the popular revolutionary Saad Zaghlul. Between 1924-1936, there existed a short-lived but successful attempt to model Egypt's constitutional government after the European style of government; known as Egypt's Liberal Experiment.

The British, however, retained a degree of control which led to continued instability in the government. In 1952, a military coup d'état forced King Farouk I, a constitutional monarch, to abdicate in support of his son King Ahmed Fouad II Finally,



the Egyptian Republic was declared on 18 June1953 with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. After Naguib was also forced to resign in 1954 by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the real architect of the 1952 movement, the latter assumed power as President and nationalized the Suez Canal leading to the 1956 Suez Crisis. Nasser came out of the war an Arab hero Between 1958 and 1961, Nasser undertook to form a union between Egypt and Syria known as the United Arab Republic.

Three years after the 1967 six day war in which Egypt lost the Sinai to isreal, Nasser died and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat, who presented his takeover in terms of a Corrective Revolution.In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched a surprise attack on Israel in the October War In 1979, Sadat made peace with Israel in exchange for the Sinai, a move that sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League Sadat was murdered by a religious fundamentalist in 1981, and succeeded by HOSNI MUBARAK.



1- Time:
Egypt time zone is GMT+02.00. This means that, for instance, the time is 11:00 am in Egypt when it is 9:00 am GMT.

2- Climate:
Egyptian summers are hot and dry in most of the country and humid in the Delta and along the Mediterranean Coast. Recently the humidity has spread to Cairo and the city swelters in August. Winters are mild with some rare rain, but usually bright, with sunny days.

3- Electricity:
Power supply in Egypt is 220 volt. If you are bringing in electronics you will need a 110/220
Wall plugs are the round two as a European style converter.Some hotels provided you transformers But try to bring your own

4- Currency Information:
The local currency is the Egyptian pound (LE). (or Lire).
1 LE = 100 Piasters(or Lire).Change your money or travelers checks at hotels or banks, when doing so please always keep the receipt; as you will need your receipts if you need to exchange remaining local currency back to dollars. Credit cards are widely used in major hotels and
restaurants.most currencies are accepted, in Egypt as US Dollar,GBP and Euro
But try to get some few egyptian pounds with you as inside the historical sites the yonly accept the Egyptian pounds

5- Weekends:
are on Friday, not on Sunday. Some streets are closed on Friday for the Moslem's prayer. Most stores and currency exchange locations are open 7 days a week, but most banks are closed Friday and Saturday. Travel agencies and airline offices may close on Friday, Saturday or Sunday, depending on the management. Most stores and some businesses close on Sunday, not Friday.

6- Crime:
Violent incidents are very rare in Egypt. The emergency phone number is 122.



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